Hot weather season
1 from march to may
2 pressure is low over land
3 pressure is high over sea
4 air move from sea to land
5 rainfall is in north eastern part of india

cold weather season
1 from mid nov. to feb.
2 pressure is high over land
3 pressure is low over sea
4 air move from land to sea
5 rainfall is in punjab and haryana
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the Hot Weather Season (Summer)

i) From March to May, it is hot weather season in India. In March, the highest temperature is about 38° Celsius, recorded on the Deccan plateau. In April, temperatures in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh are around 42° Celsius. In May, temperature of 45° Celsius is common in the northwestern parts of the country.

ii) A striking feature of the hot weather season is the ‘loo’. These are strong, gusty, hot, dry winds blowing during the day over the north and north western India. Sometimes they even continue until late in the evening. Direct exposure to these winds may even prove to be fatal.

iii) Dust storms are very common during the month of May in northern India. These storms bring temporary relief as they lower the temperature and may bring light rain and cool breeze.

iv) This is also the season for localised thunderstorms, associated with violent winds, torrential downpours, often accompanied by hail. In West Bengal, these storms are known as the ‘Kaal Baisakhi’ calamity for the month of Baisakh.

v) Towards the close of the summer season, pre-monsoon showers are common especially, in Kerala and Karnataka. They help in the early ripening of mangoes, and are often referred to as ‘mango showers’.

the Cold Weather Season (Winter)

i) The cold weather season begins from mid- November in northern India and stays till February. December and January are the coldest months in the northern part of India. The temperature decreases from south to the north.

ii) The average temperature of Chennai, on the eastern coast, is between 24° - 25° Celsius, while in the northern plains, it ranges between 10° -15° Celsius. Days are warm and nights are cold. Frost is common in the north and the higher slopes of the Himalayas experience snowfall.

iii) During this season, the northeast trade winds prevail over the country. They blow from land to sea and hence, for most part of the country, it is a dry season. Some amount of rainfall occurs on the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as, here they blow from sea to land.

iv) A characteristic feature of the cold weather season over the northern plains is the inflow of cyclonic disturbances from the west and the northwest. These low-pressure systems, originate over the Mediterranean Sea and western Asia and move into India, along with the westerly flow. They cause the much-needed winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains. Although the total amount of winter rainfall locally known as ‘mahawat’ is small, they are of immense importance for the cultivation of ‘rabi’ crops.

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