Hot Weather Season (Summer)
March to May, it is hot weather season in India. In March, the highest
temperature is about 38°
Celsius, recorded on the Deccan plateau. In April, temperatures in Gujarat and Madhya
Pradesh are around 42° Celsius. In May, temperature of 45° Celsius is common in the
northwestern parts of the country.
striking feature of the hot weather season is the ‘loo’.
These are strong, gusty, hot, dry winds
blowing during the day over the north and north western India. Sometimes they even
continue until late in the evening. Direct exposure to these winds may even
prove to be fatal.
storms are very common during the month of May in northern India. These storms bring
temporary relief as they lower the temperature and may bring light rain and
is also the season for localised thunderstorms, associated with violent winds, torrential
downpours, often accompanied by hail. In West Bengal, these storms are known as the ‘Kaal
Baisakhi’ calamity for the month of Baisakh.
Towards the close of the summer season, pre-monsoon showers are common
especially, in Kerala
and Karnataka. They help in the early ripening of mangoes, and are often
referred to as ‘mango
Cold Weather Season (Winter)
cold weather season begins from mid- November in northern India and stays till February.
December and January are the coldest months in the northern part of India. The temperature
decreases from south to the north.
average temperature of Chennai, on the eastern coast, is between 24° - 25°
Celsius, while in
the northern plains, it ranges between 10° -15° Celsius. Days are warm and
nights are cold.
Frost is common in the north and the higher slopes of the Himalayas experience snowfall.
During this season, the northeast trade winds prevail over the country. They
blow from land to
sea and hence, for most part of the country, it is a dry season. Some amount of rainfall
occurs on the Tamil Nadu coast from these winds as, here they blow from sea to land.
characteristic feature of the cold weather season over the northern plains is
the inflow of cyclonic
disturbances from the west and the northwest. These low-pressure systems, originate
over the Mediterranean Sea and western Asia and move into India, along with the
westerly flow. They cause the much-needed winter rains over the plains and
snowfall in the
mountains. Although the total amount of winter rainfall locally known as ‘mahawat’ is
small, they are of immense importance for the cultivation of ‘rabi’ crops.