An ionic bond is a type of chemical bond that involves a metal and a nonmetal ion (or polyatomicions such as ammonium) through electrostatic attraction. In short, it is a bond formed by the attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
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Ionic bond is formed when transfer of electrons take place between two atoms.
Calcium contains 2 valence electrons and the two chlorine molecules have 7 electrons each on the valence shell.So to attain octet configuration (8 electrons) calcium gives 1 electron to both the chlorine atoms.So CaCl2 ionic bond is formed.