This brief essay provides information about the land reforms in India!
The Britishers in India were not at all keen in adopting progressive land reforms measures for the rural farmers. This had given the Zamindars and the big landlords a golden opportunity to exploit the rural poor to a great extent.
It was only after independence that serious efforts were made to introduce land reforms measures. They are as follows:
1. Abolition of Intermediaries:
2. Tenancy Reforms:
3. Ceiling on land holdings:
4. Consolidation of Holdings:
5. Lack of social consciousness among the tenants:
6. State side with the big farmers:
7. Lack of strong political will:
8. Bureaucratic corruption:
9. Surplus land is fallow and uncultivable land:
10. Absence of records:
11. Lack of uniformity in land reforms laws:
12. Emergence of new agriculture technology:
In fine, in a country like India characterized by a tradition of inequality and exploitation of the poor, the land reform measures can “lead to a real burst of enthusiasm, a genuine release of energy among the working peasantry”. What it needs is the proper implementation of land reforms. There are two barriers that hinder proper implementation – (i) ignorance of the poor, and (ii) selfishness of the rich.
In order to remove these hindrances the poor should be motivated through education and persuasion and the rich should be compelled to cooperate through coercion, it certainly requires a government with strong political will and a bureaucracy with commitment to achieve the desired results.