Conservation is one of the most significant applications of ecology. It avoids unplanned development which breaks ecological as well as human laws.
A conservationist has two folds baste aims (i) to insure the preservation of a quality environment that considers aesthetic and recreational as well as product needs and (ii) to insure a continuous yield of useful plants, animals, and materials by establishing a balanced cycle of harvest and renewal (Odum, 1971).
Thus, conservation process remains chiefly concerned with the use, preservation and proper management of the natural resources of the earth and their protection from the destructive influences, misuse, decay, fire, or waste.
The natural resources include all the land, minerals, water, vegetation, wild-life and sceneries, all of which remain useful to human society in one way or other. Customarily, natural resources are classified into following three categories—
(i) Non-renewable resources like metals (iron, copper, zinc, etc.), fossil fuels (coal and oil deposits), other minerals and their salts (phosphates, nitrates, carbonates, and stone.
(ii) Renewable resources such as living resources like fish, forests, crops, wood, etc.
(iii) Unalterable resources—the resources that are used outside the human body the gathering of which leaves they unaltered.
Such features of our surroundings as scenery, wildlife (if observed rather than hunted) and water, for swimming or sailing, remain unchanged by our use of them for recreational and aesthetic satisfaction. The total flow of a resource from its state in nature through its period of content with man to its disposal has been termed as a resources process by Firey (1960).