Terminal voltage is the voltage output of a device is measured across its terminals.Terminal voltage is calculated by V = emf - Ir.
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Terminal voltage is the voltage output measured across its terminals of a voltage source.(a single battery can be considered as a voltage source).
\boxed{V = EMF - IR}
Where V = terminal voltage
          EMF = electromotive force
          I = current flowing in the circuit
          R = internal resistance of the source
Ideally, terminal voltage, V should be equal to EMF(R=0), but since every battery has some resistance of its own, V is not equal to EMF.
The more the internal resistance of a source, the more is the difference between the terminal voltage and the EMF.
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