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Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe  Frederic Sorrieu He was a French artist famous for prints prepared in 1948 that visualized the dream of a world consisting of Democratic and Social Republics.  Nineteenth Century Associated with the rise of nationalism and nation states.  Nationalism A feeling of oneness with the society or the state, love and devotion for the motherland and belief in the political identity of one‟s country are the basic attributes of nationalism.  Nation State A state that establishes itself as a separate political and geographical entity and functions as a complete and sovereign territorial unit. This concept emerged in 19th century Europe as a result of the growth of nationalism.  Modern State A state in which sovereignty is exercised by a centralized power over a specific territory and population.  Absolutist Government A system of government wherein limitless powers are vested in a single person or body. It is a monarchical form of government in which the ruler is the absolute authority and is not answerable to anybody.  French Revolution (1789) It marks the beginning of nationalism. Salient features of the French Revolution were:  France was under absolute monarchy in 1789.  The Revolution transferred the sovereignty from the monarch to the French people.  Ideas of La patrie (the fatherhood) and Le citoyen (the citizen) adopted.  New French Flag, the tricolour, adopted replacing the royal standard.  Estates General elected by citizens and renamed the National Assembly.  A centralized political system established.  Internal custom dues abolished.  Uniform weights and measures adopted.  French became the language of the nation.  French armies moved into Holland, Belgium, Switzerland and Italy in the 1790s with a promise of liberating the people from their despotic rulers.  Napoleon (1769-1821)  Ruled France from 1799 to 1815.  Assumed absolute powers in 1799 by becoming the First Consul.  Civil Code/Napoleonic Code (1804) Established equality before law.  Abolished all privileges based on birth.  Granted the right to property to French citizens.  Simplified administrative divisions.  Abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom.  Removed restrictions on guilds in towns.  Improved transport and communication.  Militarily, Napoleon proved to be an oppressor for the people of the conquered territories. Taxation and censorship were imposed and military services were made mandatory.  Europe in the mid-18th Century  No nation states because Europeans never saw themselves as sharing a common identity or culture. E.g., The Habsburg Empire of Austria–Hungary comprised French, Italian and German-speaking people.  Europe was broadly divided into two classes during this period namely: Aristocracy  The land owning class.  Numerically small, but dominated Europe, both socially and politically.  Spoke French which was considered the language of the high society.  Families were connected through marriage. Peasantry  Tenants and small land owners who worked as serfs. 
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