1) BIRTH RATE-the number of live births per 1000 in a year
Birth rates are affected by such factors as nutrition, fertility, attitudes about abortion, labour value of children, government policies, social value, the availability of contraception and culture.2)
DEATH RATE-the number of deaths per 1000 in a year
Death rates are affected by disease, war, medical technology, improved health care, transportation development and nutrition.3)
IMMIGRATION-the number of people moving into a country.
Pull factors-characteristics of a place that attracts people to it.4)
EMIGRATION-the number of people leaving a country
Push Factors-characteristics of a place that causes people to leave.
Refugees- people who are forced to leave their country due to war, life-threatening discrimination, famine, or natural disasters.
Population Growth Rate - The percentage increase in a population over a period of time. Calculated by subtracting the number of deaths + emigrants from the number of births + immigrants.
Replacement Level - The number of children required to keep the population of a country constant, not taking migration into consideration. This is about 2.1 children per female in MDCs and 2.5 children per female in LDCs.
Total Fertility Rate - The average number of children a woman has in her lifetime in a country. This obviously depends on religion, culture, social values and economic status.
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