Stringed instruments
in stringed instruments like violin and guitar sound is produced by a vibrating string.the shrillness of the sound is altered by changing the length of the vibrating portion of the string.

reed instruments
in reed instruments like trumpet and flute sound is produced by the vibrating air column inside the instrument.

membrane instruments
in these instruments the sound is produced by a vibrating skin.
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Stringed instruments (Tantu Vadya): Stringed instruments have taut strings mounted over specially designed wooden frames which are partially hollow from inside where air trapped in, forms and air column. The air column increases the intensity of the musical sound due to the resonance.When the strings are plucked or struck or played with a bow, they vibrate to produce a sound of particular frequency. The pitch of the sound of a musical instrument can be changed by altering its length.
Percussion or Membrane instrument (Avanaddhu Vadya): All percussion instruments have a taut skin over a hollow metal or wooden frame. When the skin is struck it produces musical sound. Dholak, Tabla, Mridangam and Drumsare some examples.
Wind or Reed instruments (Sushir Vadya): Wind instruments Make use of vibrating air columns. In these instruments the air is blown in either directly or through reeds. Examples are Flute, shennai, bagpipes, bugles.