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the change of temperature of a gas when it is allowed to expand without doing any external work. The gas becomes cooler if it was initially below a certain temperature  or hotter if initially above it...
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The Joule–­Thomson effect describes the increase or decrease in the temperature of a real gas (as differentiated from an ideal gas) or a liquid when allowed to expand freely through a valve or other throttling device while kept insulated so that no heat is transferred to or from the fluid, and no external mechanical work is extracted from the fluid