Nouns[change | edit source]Nouns are things. They can be a single thing such as an apple. They can also be plural such as a box of apples. There is a special kind of noun called a proper noun, which is a name. For instance, Johnny Appleseed.Pronouns[change | edit source]Pronouns are special types of nouns. They are not a particular thing. They can mean many different things. An example is the word "it." In the sentence "I like the ball; it is blue," you have to look at what comes before "it" to know that "it" is talking about the ball. The noun before a pronoun that the pronoun really means is called the antecedent.Verbs[change | edit source]The basic verb form is called the infinitive. The infinitive for existence is "to be". A famous example is the speech of Hamlet: to be or not to be? Variations of the infinitive create verb tenses.Past tense = wasPresent tense = isFuture tense = willAdjectives[change | edit source]Words that tell you about nouns are called adjectives. When an adjective is used, you learn more about the noun. An example would be the words "red" and "juicy" in the phrase "the red apple is juicy." They do not have any endings. Even if the noun they talk about is plural, they stay the same. You can see this in the sentence "the red apples are juicy."Adverbs[change | edit source]Adverbs are words that tell you about words that are not nouns. An adverb can describe a verb, like the word "quickly" in the sentence "He ran quickly." They can also describe an adjective. The adverb "very" describes the adjective "sick" in the sentence "The boy is very sick." Adverbs can even describe other adverbs, as in the sentence "He ran very quickly"Prepositions[change | edit source]A preposition is a word that describes how one noun (or pronoun) relate to another the sentence as a whole. The preposition usually comes before the noun that they add to the sentence, which is called theobject of the preposition. An example is the word "over" in the sentence "he walked over the bridge."Conjugations[change | edit source]A conjugation is a word that connects other parts of a sentence. They can connect two words that both do the same thing in a sentence. "And" in the sentence "the boy and the girl run" connects the boy to the girl because the both run. They can even connect two clauses that would normally be different sentences together. The word "but" in the sentence "I like cats, but he likes dogs" is a conjunction doing this.Interjections]Interjections are words that do not fit normal grammar rules. Interjections can and often do take the place of an entire sentence, as they can give they meaning of a whole sentence in a single word. These can be used to show emotions, such as the word "Hooray," which means that the speaker is happy or likes something. They are also used to shorten common phrases that would otherwise need a full sentence to talk about. For example, saying the word "yes" is much simpler than saying "what you say is true," so it is usually used instead. Interjections like these can be helpful for saving time and making complex sentences very simple. Often, though, interjections may have no meaning at all, such as the word "um."