The chapter is titled the last lesson because it was M.Hamel's last session as well as last French lesson in the school.
In the last day of school M.Hamel wore his fine Sunday clothes as a mark of respect for the language and culture is being invaded by the foreigners. He was feeling nostalgic as well as repentant.His speech is an attempt to make the audience concious about the absurdity of not been able to speak or write ones native language. He feels that ones language can serve as a ray of hope in times of enslavement and captivity. 
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